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Choosing The Right Socks
Outdoor activities can be tough on your feet, so a good pair of high-tech socks is your first line of defense for dry, comfortable and blister-free feet. While the idea of "technical socks" might sound a bit funny, there's no denying the big improvement they make over your old all-cotton tube socks.
Socks by Activity
When shopping for socks, you'll usually find them organized by intended activity.
Athletic/multisport socks: This broad category ranges from traditional white gym socks (updated with moisture-wicking fabrics) to premium technical socks intended for cross-training and running. Most provide some sole cushioning, but have minimal bulk overall. Available in crew (mid-calf), quarter-crew (ankle) and no-show heights.
Running socks: These range from thin liner socks with very little padding to those with dense cushioning in the heel and ball of the foot. Some people prefer less padding for a better fit in their shoes; others like more padding for added cushioning and reduced foot fatigue. Available in crew, quarter-crew and mini-crew (below the ankle) styles.
Walking socks: These offer cushioning and moisture-wicking properties for fitness walkers. They come in several heights, from crews to no-shows.
Casual socks: Though distinguished by their casual styling (colors, stripes, etc.), these lightweight socks, are usually made from performance fabrics such as merino wool.
Lightweight hiking socks: These relatively thin socks are intended to provide a good fit for hikers with high-volume feet (i.e., feet that are wide or have a high instep). Lightweight hikers offer excellent moisture management and modest cushioning in the heel and ball of the foot. They are thinner, especially on the top, than midweight socks. They can be worn with or without liner socks.
Midweight backpacking socks: These have additional thickness to give a good fit to hikers with low-volume feet (i.e., feet that are narrow or have a low instep). They offer more padding in the heel and ball of the foot than do lightweight hiking socks, plus cushioning on the top of the foot and leg, making them ideal for comfort on long trails. They can be worn with or without liner socks.
Mountaineering socks: These heavyweight socks are your thickest option, with extra bulk and padding to withstand rugged conditions.
Ski and snowboard socks: These are padded in the shin area and usually underfoot as well. They are thin and not intended to provide significant warmth, rather they are meant to protect your feet from pressure points and rubbing inside the boots. Their design also serves to not interfere with the energy needed to make quick turns.
Here are some multi-activity sock options to consider.
Liner socks: Liners are thin, lightweight socks designed to be worn next to your skin, under a pair of regular hiking socks. Typically made of synthetics like CoolMax® polyester or polypropylene, they pull moisture away from the feet to the outer sock where it can evaporate. Liner socks are popular because they can be washed and dried easily on long trips. They're usually used with hiking boots rather than walking or running shoes, since boots often have extra volume to accommodate them.
Waterproof socks: You have two choices. The first, waterproof/breathable oversocks, is great for backpacking in rainy weather, when keeping your regular socks dry is a real necessity. Your other option is waterproof/breathable socks worn in place of regular socks. These feature a thick exterior, a moisture barrier and a fleece interior. They are immersible and are intended to provide warmth while paddling or surfing in cold water.
Toe socks: Like gloves for your feet, innovative "toe socks" help prevent between-toe blisters with a seamless construction that protects each toe. Typically made of synthetic fibers, these socks are intended for running or hiking. Keep in mind, though, that between-toe blisters may be the result of too-tight shoes rather than poor-performing socks.
Fleece socks: Made from the same cozy material used in outerwear and blankets, fleece socks are great for wear with shoes or sandals, or by themselves as house slippers. The fabric wicks moisture but does not conform to the foot as much as a hiking sock.
Heated socks: These work wonders for sedentary pursuits (e.g., fishing, spectator sports) in cold weather. They use low-amperage battery power to provide fast, shockproof heat.
Understanding Sock Materials
Your feet are densely covered with about 250,000 eccrine sweat glands per foot, making them one of the sweatiest places on your body. To absorb and disperse all that moisture is a key reason quality socks feature performance fabrics. Here are your most common choices:
Merino wool: The long, fine, itch-free fibers of merino wool have largely replaced the scratchy ragg-wool socks you may have grown up with. Their biggest advantage is that they are thermostatic (temperature-regulating), so your feet stay comfortable in a wide range of temperatures. Wool can absorb up to 30% of its weight in water, which means your feet remain dry longer.
PROS: Comfortable in cool or warm conditions, absorbs and wicks moisture, cushions, doesn't itch like ragg wool.
CONS: Dries a bit slower than synthetics, more expensive.
Synthetics: Several materials are often combined or used in select areas of the sock for great comfort and fit. Nylon and Lycra® spandex help socks retain their shape, create a snug fit and, in some sock styles, provide arch support. CoolMax® polyester, Wickspun® acrylic and Isolfil® polypropylene are commonly used fibers that wick away moisture to keep your feet dry and prevent blisters.
PROS: Durable, dries fast, wicks moisture, cushions.
CONS: Less comfortable in hot conditions, insulation reduced when wet.
Ingeo®: Pronounced IN-gee-oh, this corn-based polylactic acid (or PLA) fiber acts similarly to polyester but is an eco-friendly alternative.
PROS: Made from a renewable resource, recyclable, wicks moisture, controls odors.
CONS: Less durable than other fabrics; can only be commercially composted.
Silk: This natural insulator is used in sock liners and sometimes blended with wool for a soft feel. It offers reliable wicking and smooth texture against the skin.
PROS: Lightweight, wicks moisture, comfortable against skin.
CONS: Less durable than other fabrics.
Cotton: Cotton is not recommended for active uses. The problem with 100% cotton socks is that they absorb sweat, saturate quickly and dry slowly, which is a perfect recipe for blisters.
PROS: Comfortable for non-active uses, inexpensive.
CONS: Not recommended for active wear.
Padding: Look for padding on the heel and ball of the foot for cushioning and protection. Be sure the amount of padding does not make your shoe too tight. Padding is created either by increasing the density of the weave in those areas, or in some cases by weaving long-wearing materials like acrylic into those areas. This extra padding can be a real foot-saver on hard trips over rough terrain.
Arch reinforcements: Some socks offer a tighter, reinforced weave in the arch to improve support. This is primarily helpful if you have high arches, but can be useful for those with regular arches or flat feet as well. Without proper support, arches can develop arch pain or even plantar fasciitis, which can cause severe pain in your heels. Keep in mind, though, that your footwear is the key factor for arch support.
Height: In many cases, this is merely a personal or style preference. However, crew and quarter socks do offer abrasion protection from your boot tops, so we recommend socks at least this tall when you're wearing mid- or high-cut boots.
Fit: To get the right size, look for manufacturer-specific size information. When you try on socks, pay attention to how they fit in the toe and the heel. Correct length is the key criteria. If a sock is too long, it will bunch up over your toes. If it's too short, the sock will slide down into the shoe and feel tight. For heavily padded socks, try them on with your shoes to ensure they fit comfortably without making your shoes too tight.
I hike in a hot climate. What socks should I wear?
Fit is your #1 criteria. With that in mind, both lightweight and midweight merino-wool socks can be excellent choices depending on how they fit your foot. Midweight socks actually absorb more water than thinner options, which allows the foot itself to stay surprisingly cool and dry despite the extra bulk. Synthetics like CoolMax® get saturated faster than wool, but they are easily washed and dried, so they're a better choice for travel.
How thick should my socks be?
Proper sock thickness depends on the fit of your footwear. If you have a low-volume foot, you'll probably want thicker socks; high-volume feet usually require thinner socks. Always try on socks with your shoes to make sure they fit comfortably.
Does wearing a liner sock under my regular sock prevent blisters?
Not necessarily. The most important anti-blister strategy is having your footwear fit right. Sock volume is part of the fit equation, so consider liner socks whenever additional volume is needed.
What socks should I bring on a weeklong backpacking trip?
To save room in your pack, bring several pairs of liner socks and one pair of backpacking socks. Your sweat gets absorbed by the liner socks, while your backpacking socks stay relatively clean. With this approach, you need only to replace the liner socks every day with fresh ones. Wash out your liner socks as needed (they will dry much faster than typical backpacking socks.)
A good pair of socks can help prevent blisters and keep your feet dry, cushioned and comfortable in a variety of conditions, regardless of your activity. Look for socks with performance materials such as merino wool or CoolMax® polyester.
Padding in the heel and ball of the foot provides cushioning, which is a nice feature for high-impact activities such as running and backpacking.
Fit is the most important criteria. The proper thickness of your socks is directly related to the fit of your shoes or boots.